The genus Mangifera belongs to the order Sapindales in the family Anacardiaceae, which is a family of mainly tropical species.
The Mango, Mangifera indica L., is the most economically important fruit crop in the Anacardiaceae (Cashew or poison ivy family). Other important members of this family include cashew, pistachio, and the mombins (Spondias spp.). The family contains 73 genera and about 600-850 species, with a few representatives in temperate regions, distinguished by their resinous bark and caustic oils in leaves, bark, and fruits. The other distant relatives of Mangifera are cashew (Anacardium occidentale), gandaria (Bouea gandaria), pistachio (Pistacia vera), marula (Sclerocarya birrea), ambarella (Spondias cytherea), yellow mombin (Spondias mombin), red mombin (Spondias purpurea), imbu (Spondias tuberosa), dragon plums (Dracontomelum spp.) kaffir plum (Harpepbyllum caffrum), etc.. Malesia has been considered as the phytogeographic region extending from the Malay peninsula south of the Kangar-Pattani line to the Bismarck archipelago east of New Guinea (Whitmore, 1975). Apart from edible fruit Anacardiaceous species also yield other valuable products like wood, gums and resins, wax and varnishes and tanning materials. It is also a family well known for the dermal irritation produced by some of its members, including some Mangifera species, can cause some form of dermatitis in humans. It is therefore ironic that two of the most delectable nuts and one of the world's major fruit crops come from this family.
The Genus Mangifera L.
Mangifera contains about 30 species, although some authors put the number as high as 69. Up to 15 other species produce edible fruit, including the water mango M. laurina, and M. sylvatica, the wild, forest mango from which M. indica is thought to have descended. The highest diversity occurs in Malaysia, particularly in peninsular Malaya, Borneo and Sumatra representing heart of the distribution range of the genus. The natural occurrence of all the Mangifera species extends as far north as 27o latitude and as far east as the Caroline Islands (Bompard and Schnell, 1997). Wild mangoes occur in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sikkim, Thailand, Kampuchea, Vietnam, Laos, southern China, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon and Caroline Islands. Maximum species diversity exists in western Malaysia and about 28 species are found in this region.
B. History of the Mango
Native to southern Asia, specially Eastern India, Burma and the Andaman Islands, mango has been cultivated, praised and even revered in its homeland since ancient times. Buddhist monks are believed to have taken the mango on voyages to Malaya and eastern Asia in the 4th and 5th Centuries BC. Persians are said to have taken mangoes to East Africa around the 10th Century AD. The fruit was grown in the East Indies before the earliest visits of the Portuguese who apparently introduced it to West Africa in the early 16th Century and also into Brazil. After becoming established in Brazil, the mango was carried to the West Indies, being first planted in Barbados about 1742 and later in the Dominican Republic. It reached Jamaica about 1782 and, early in the 19th Century, reached Mexico from the Philippines and the West Indies (Morton, 1987).
Experts at the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany (BSIP) in India have traced the origin of mango to the hills of Meghalaya, India from a 65 million year-old fossil of a mango leaf. The earlier fossil records of mango (Mangifera indica) from the Northeast and elsewhere were 25 to 30 million years old. The 'carbonized leaf fossil' from Damalgiri area of Meghalaya hills, believed to be a mango tree from the peninsular India, was found by Dr R. C. Mehrotra, senior scientist, BSIP and his colleagues. After careful analysis of the fossil of the mango leaf and leaves of modern plants, the BISP scientist found many of the fossil leaf characters to be similar to mangifera.
An extensive study of the anatomy and morphology of several modern-day species of the genus mangifera with the fossil samples had reinforced the concept that its centre of origin is Northeast India, from where it spread into neighboring areas, says Dr. Mehrotra. The genus is believed to have disseminated into neighboring areas after the formation of land connections between India and Malaysia through Burma after the collision of the Indian plate with the Asian plate. After the land connection was established between India and Asia, the ancestral stock of mangifera migrated east and west and species diversified extensively in the Malaysian and Sumatran rain forests.
C. Botanical Description
Growth Habit. Mango trees make handsome landscape specimens and shade trees. They are erect and fast growing with sufficient heat, and the canopy can be broad and rounded, or more upright, with a relatively slender crown. It is ultimately a large tree, to 65 ft. The tree is long-lived with some specimens known to be over 300 years old and still fruiting. In deep soil the taproot descends to a depth of 20 ft, and the profuse, wide-spreading feeder roots also send down many anchor roots which penetrate for several feet.
Tree. The mango tree is medium to large (10 to 40 m) in height, evergreen with symmetrical, rounded canopy ranging from low and dense to upright and open. Bark is usually dark grey-brown to black, rather smooth, superficially cracked or inconspicuously fissured, peeling off in irregular, rather thick pieces. It can live well over 100 years. Cultivated orchards are kept at 20-30 ft.
The Philippine mango tree often reach 15 to 18 m (50 to 60 feet) in height and attain great age. The typical Manila mango tree is large spreading and evergreen with a dense crown, early-ripening. The tree has a rounded canopy ranging from low and dense to upright and open.
Foliage. Mango leaves in general are dark green above and pale below. The leaves are alternate, with no stipules, simple, leathery, oblong-lanceolate to linear. Leaves are variable in shapes like oval-lanceolate, lanceolate, oblong, linear-oblong, ovate, obovate-lanceolate or roundish-oblong depending on variety. The upper surface is shining and dark green while the lower is glabrous light green. The midrib is pale and conspicuous with many prominent light colored horizontal veins distinct. The length and breadth of full-grown leaves varies from 12 to 45 cm and 2 to 12 cm, respectively, depending on variety and growth, and are generally borne in clusters separated by a length of naked stem bearing no buds. These naked stems mark successive flushes of growth. Each flush of growth will harden off to a rich green color before the next flush of growth begins.
The color of young leaves generally vary from variety to variety, generally being tan-red, amber, pinkish, yellow-brown in color. As the leaf grow, its color changes from tan-red to green, passing through many different shades until it becomes shiny dark green above, lighter below, with yellow or white venation at maturity. Emerging leaves on new growth flushes are may appear wilted. One or two growth flushes occur per year, with flushes placed sporadically across the canopy of a given tree. Leaves may persist several years.
The leaves appear in flushes. They are flaccid and pendulous when young. The leaves have fibers and crackle when crushed. They strongly smell of turpentine (some cultivars do not smell). The leaves contain considerable amounts of mangiferin (xanthone).
Root. The tree forms a long unbranched long taproot (up to 6 to 8 meters and more) plus a dense mass of superficial feeder roots. Feeder roots develop at the base of the trunk or slightly deeper; these produce anchor roots and sometimes a collection of feeder roots develops above the water table. The fibrous root system extends away from the drip line. Effective root system of an 18 year old mango tree may observe a 1.2 m depth with lateral spread as far as 7.5 m.
Flowers. Tiny (1/8-1/4"), yellowish or reddish flowers are borne in inflorescences which appear at branch terminals, in dense panicles of up to 6000 minute flowers. These flowers respire a volatile substance, causing allergic and respiratory problems for some persons. Few of the flowers in each inflorescence are perfect, so most do not produce pollen and are incapable of producing fruit. About 25-98% of the flowers are male, depending on cultivar, and the remaining hermaphroditic. Hermaphrodite and male flowers are produced in the same panicle, usually with a larger number of the later. The size of both male and hermaphrodite flowers varies from 6 to 8 mm in diameter.
Panicles that arise later in the bloom season or in shaded parts of the canopy tend to have more hermaphroditic flowers. Panicles are initiated in terminal buds 1-3 months prior to flowering, triggered by low temperatures or seasonally dry conditions. Mangoes are distinct from most fruit crops in that chemical application is used to promote flowering and fruiting. Ethephon, KNO3 and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) are used to either induce flowering, or enhance fruit set or the proportion of hermaphroditic flowers.
Pollen cannot be shed in high humidity or rain. Fertilization is also ineffective when night temperatures are below 55° F. Mangoes are monoecious and self-fertile, so a single tree will produce fruit without cross pollination. Polyembryonic types may not require pollination at all. Branches may be ringed to induce flowering, but the results are mixed.
Inflorescence. The inflorescence is a many-branched panicle borne at shoot terminals, 2.5 to 16 inches long (6.4 to 40.6 cm), possessing many very small (4 mm) greenish white or pinkish flowers. The inflorescence is a narrowly to broadly conical panicle depending upon cultivar and environmental conditions during its development. The color of the panicle may be yellowish-green, light green with crimson patches or with crimson flush on branches. The branching of the inflorescence is usually tertiary, rarely quaternary, but the ultimate branching is always cymose. Each panicle bears 500 to 6,000 flowers of which 1 to 70 percent are bisexual, the remainder are male depending on the cultivar and temperature during its development. Both male and bisexual flowers are borne on the same tree. The flowers are radially symmetrical, and usually have 5 petals, streaked with red. There is usually only 1 fertile stamen per flower; the 4 other stamens are sterile. The flower has a conspicuous 5-lobed disk between the petals and stamens.
Fruits. The mango fruit is an irregularly egg-shaped and slightly compressed large fleshy drupes. It varies considerably in size, shape, color, presence of fiber, flavor, taste and several other characters depending on variety. The fruits grow at the end of a long, string-like stem (the former panicle), with sometimes two or more fruits to a stem. The fruits are 2 to 9 inches long. They range in size from 8 ounces to around 24 ounces. The quality of the fruit is based on the scarcity of fiber and minimal turpentine taste.
Each mango has a single compressed-ovoid seed encased in the white fibrous inner layer of the fruit. The large, flattened, kidney-shaped central stone contains one or more large, starchy embryos, and can constitute up to 20% of fruit weight. The seed may either have a single embryo, producing one seedling, or polyembryonic, producing several seedlings that are identical but not always true to the parent type. It is impossible to distinguish true-to-type from zygotic seedlings from the same fruit. Some seedlings produce numerous tiny, parthenocarpic fruits which fail to develop and abort.
The skin is gland-dotted and at maturity its color exhibit different mixtures of green and yellow shades, with red/orange blush depending on cultivars, and is thicker than usual for drupaceous fruit. The skin contains irritating oils, particularly in unripe fruit. The leathery skin is waxy and smooth. It is inedible and contains a sap that is irritating to some people.
The flesh of a mango is peach-like and juicy, with more or less numerous fibers radiating from the husk of the single large kidney-shaped seed. Fibers are more pronounced in fruits grown with hard water and chemical fertilizers. The flavor is pleasant and rich and high in sugars and acid. The flesh may vary in quality from soft, sweet, juicy and fiber-free in high-quality selected (clonal) varieties to turpentine-flavored and fibrous in unselected (wild) seedlings. This flesh is rich in vitamins A, C and D. The mango flesh is sometimes astringent (turpentine-like), and can have fibers extending from the endocarp (stone). The acrid juice, with turpentine like smell, present in the stalk or sometimes in the fruits, is due to myrcene and ocimene.
In the Philippines, mangoes are generally harvested from December to May depending upon climatic conditions and variety. Although the fruit will ripen on the tree, commercially it is usually picked when firm and green for shipment to market. The crop is considered mature when the shoulder of the fruit broadens (fills out) and some fruits on the tree have begun to change color from green to yellow. Prior to this external color break, the fruit is considered mature when the flesh near the seed changes color from white to yellow.
Mangoes should be picked before they are fully ripe, at which time they soften and fall. The fruit bruises easily and must be handled carefully to avoid damage. They are ripened at room temperature and then refrigerated. Mature mangoes keep fairly well under refrigeration for two to three weeks at 50 to 55°F
D. Mango Cultivars
There are hundreds of mango cultivars distributed throughout the world, of which Asia and India have over 500 classified varieties have evolved and have been described and 69 species mostly restricted to tropical regions. Perhaps some of these varieties are duplicates with different names, but at least 350 are propagated in commercial nurseries. The highest diversity occurs in Malaysia, particularly in peninsular Malaya, Borneo and Sumatra, representing the heart of the distribution range of the genus. The natural occurrence of all the Mangifera species extends as far north as 27° latitude and as Far East as the Caroline Islands. Wild mangoes occur in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sikkim, Thailand, Kampuchea, Vietnam, Laos, southern China, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea and the Solomon and Caroline Islands. Maximum species diversity exists in western Malaysia and about 28 species are found in this region.
However, in the Western Hemisphere, a few cultivars derived from a breeding program in Florida are the most popular for international trade. Locally, many cultivars are used and often seedling trees are grown as a backyard food source. The Horticulture Research Unit of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research and Education Centre of the University of Florida, together maintain a germplasm 125 of mango cultivars as a resource for mango growers and breeders in many countries.
|Aloha||Origin San Diego, Jerry Staedeli, 1971. From Hawaiian seed. Tree spreading, light bearer, according to rootstock affinity. Fruit large (14-18 oz.), dull yellow covered with red. Early (Oct-Nov). Susceptible to anthracnose. For coast.|
|Brooks||Origin Miami, 1916. Seedling of Sandersha. Tree somewhat dwarf. Fruit medium to large (10-20 oz.), kidney-shaped, green with yellow shoulder, rather fibrous. Very late. Resistant to anthracnose. For greenhouse and containers.|
|Cambodiana||Origin Miami, 1910. Seedling of Saigon. Philippine type. Fruit small to medium, elongated ovate, yellow-green, juicy, flavor acid. Early. For greenhouse.|
|Carabao||Origin Philippines. Philippine type. Fruit medium (10 oz.), elongated, kidney-shaped, light green blushed yellow. Seed very large, flesh stringy, acid, juicy. Early midseason.|
|Carrie||Origin Delray Beach, Florida, 1940. Seedling of Sophie Fry. Tree dwarf. Fruit varies from small to 12 oz., regular ovate, green-yellow, fiberless, flavor high. Early. For foothills, interior and greenhouse.|
|Cooper (syn. Cooper No. 1 or 3)||Origin Hollywood, Floyd Cooper, 1948. Tree spreading, dense. Fruit large (16-20 oz.), long, green. Flesh high quality. Late. For foothills.|
|Costa Rica||Origin East Los Angeles, Gilbert Guyenne, 1980. >From seed from Costa Rica. Fruit small to 10 oz., elongated, flat, pale green, juicy. Very early. For coast and foothills.|
|Doubikin||Origin Kelmscott, West Africa, Arnold Doubikin, 1965. Two sibling seedlings of Kensington pass under this name. Tree dwarf, rounded, slow growing, fruits in two years from seed. Polyembryonic. Fruit round, large (12-16 oz.), midseason. For coast, foothills, greenhouse.|
|Earlygold||Origin Pine Island, Florida, 1943. Tree upright. Fruit medium to 12 oz., obliquely round, orange with red blush, fiberless, seed often abortive. Very early. Resistant to anthracnose. For coast.|
|Edgehill||Origin Vista, Calif., Paul Thomson, 1920s. Indian type. Tree upright, hardy, vigorous. Monoembryonic. Blooms early. Produces small to medium (8-12 oz.), almost fiberless fruit, green with red blush. Resists mildew, subject to soft nose. Midseason (Nov-Dec). For foothills.|
|Edward||Origin Miami, Edward Simmons, 1948. Hybrid of Haden X Carabao. Intermediate between Indian and Philippine forms. Tree dense, compact. Fruit medium to large, elongated ovate, apex often oblique, yellow green with red blush. Seed very small, easily removed. Flavor excellent. Early. For interior.|
|Fascell||Origin Miami, 1936. Seedling of Brooks. Pat. #451. Tree open, slow. Fruit medium to large, elongated flattened, yellow with pink blush, flesh acid. Early. For coast and inland.|
|Gouveia||Origin Honolulu, Ruth Gouveia, 1946. Tree upright, open, Fruit medium to large,(10-20 oz.), long ovate, green becoming bright red. Sweet, juicy, no fiber. Late, uneven ripening. For coast and inland.|
|Haden||Origin Coconut Grove, Capt. Haden, 1910. seedling of Mulgoba. Indian type. Tree spreading. Fruit large (to 24 oz.), regular ovate, yellow almost covered with red, flavor mild, little fiber. Early. Susceptible to anthracnose and alternate bearing, traits imparted to its progeny. For interior and greenhouse.|
|Irwin||Origin Miami, F.D. Irwin, 1945. Seedling of Lippens. Florida's leading local market cultivar. Tree very small. Fruit medium, 12-16 oz., elongated, ovate regular in form, orange yellow with deep blush, flesh bland, fiberless. Mid-season. For foothills, interior, greenhouse.|
|Julie||Origin Trinidad. Tree dwarf, slow growing. Fruit small (6-10 oz.), flat oblong, obliquely almost two-nosed, orange, rather fibrous, juicy, sweet. Late. For containers, greenhouse.|
|Keitt||Origin Homestead, 1945. Probably seedling of Mulgoba. Fruit large (20-26 oz.), ovate with slightly oblique apex, green, flesh rich, fiber only around seed. Resists mildew. Late. For interior. Florida fruiting July Aug., sometimes to Sept.|
|Kensington Pride (syns. Pride of Bowen, Bowen Special)||Origin Bowen, Queensland, 1960s. Generally propagated as seedling strain. Polyembryonic. Tree rounded, vigorous. Fruit medium to large, almost round with pink blush. Flavor sweet. Standard Australian mango cv. Fruit tends to drop at small size. Midseason. For foothills.|
|Kent||Origin Coconut Grove, 1944. Seedling of Brooks. Tree upright. Fruit large (20-26 oz.), regular ovate, greenish yellow with red shoulder, flesh rich, fiberless. Late midseason. For interior.|
|MacPherson||Origin Encinitas, L.L. Bucklew, 1944. Tree dense, low branching. Fruit small (6-8 oz.), yellow-green with red blush, flesh fairly good. Midseason. For coast.|
|Manila||Origin Mexico, a seedling race common in Veracruz state. A seedling strain from Hawaii. Philippine type. Tree dwarf, dense. Fruit small to 10 oz., shaped long, flat, yellow, flavor sharp. Subject to anthracnose. Early (Oct-Dec), late picked fruit best. For coast and foothills.|
|Mulgoba||Origin Bombay; distinct from ancient cv. Mulgoa. Fruit medium, 16 oz., greenhouse.|
|Ott||Origin La Habra heights, William Ott, 1948. Seedling of Saigon. Tree dwarf. Fruit medium, to six inches, orange-yellow with pink blush. Season very early.|
|Piņa (syn. Pineapple)||Origin Mexico, a seedling strain. Philippine type. Tree upright. Fruit small to 12 oz., shape ovoid, orange yellow. Flavor suggests pineapple. Early midseason (Nov-Dec). For foothills.|
|Pirie (syn. Paheri)||Origin India, ancient. Tree broad, spreading. Fruit small (8-10 oz.), almost round, apex oblique, yellow with red blush. Juicy, fiberless, rich flavor. Alternate bearing; blooms every 18 months. Early midseason. For greenhouse.|
|Reliable||Origin San Diego, Calif., Jerry Staedeli, 1966. Seedling of Sensation. Tree broad, dense, slow. Fruit size varies from 10-20 oz., shape oblong, yellow blushed red. Rarely misses a crop. Subject to anthracnose, soft nose. Long ripening season (Oct-Feb). For coast and foothills.|
|Sensation||Origin Miami, 1941. Tree broad, rounded. Fruit small, round with oblique apex, yellow with red blush, fibers few. Late. For interior.|
|T1||Origin Vista, Paul Thomson, 1969. Seedling of Edgehill. Tree low, spreading. Vigor dependent upon rootstock. Fruit medium to large, 6-8 inches, shape broad oval, green with red blush, fiberless. Subject to anthracnose, resists mildew, soft nose. Late midseason (Dec-Jan), very late on coast (Jan-Feb). For coast, foothills, interior, containers.|
|Thomson (syn. Thomson Large Seedling)||Origin Vista, Paul Thomson, 1966. Manila seedling, polyembryonic. Tree spreading, vigor dependent upon rootstock. Fruit small to medium, (6-12 oz.), yellow, shape flat, to eight inches. Resists mildew. High fiber under chemical fertilizer regime. Season early, long (September-November), ripens well indoors if picked prematurely. For coast.|
|Tommy Atkins||Originated from a seed planted in the 1920s at Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Commercially grown for export in Florida. Tree full, dense. Fruit medium to large, 16 oz. with thick skin, regular ovate, orange-yellow covered with red and heavy purple bloom. Firm, juicy, medium fiber, fair to good quality. Flavor poor when over fertilized and irrigated. Resists anthracnose. Early, ripens well if picked immature. For interior.|
|Villaseņor||Origin Los Angeles, 1950s, Sr. Villaseņor. Tree dwarf, spreading, responds to strong rootstock. Fruit medium, to 12 oz., shape ovate, color greenish yellow, pink blush, flavor mild. Late midseason (Dec Jan). For coast, foothills.|
|Winters (syn, M20222, Southland)||Origin Miami, USDA, 1959. Seedling of Ono, Philippine type, polyembryonic. Tree broad, production variable. Fruit medium, to 14 oz., smaller in desert, shape half-round, yellow blushed red. Subject to anthracnose, resists soft nose. Parthenocarpic fruit will reach full size. Season midseason (Nov-Dec), ripens well if picked immature. For coast, foothills, interior.|
|Zill||Origin Lake Worth, 1930. Seedling of Haden. Tree very spreading, open. Fruit small, 8-12 oz., almost round, apex oblique, yellow with blush, little fiber. Ripens early. For greenhouse.|
Apart from numerous seedling varieties, more than a thousand vegetatively propagated mango cultivars have been reported. Most of these have originated as chance seedlings and propagated asexually.
Important mango cultivars in major producing countries are listed in the Table below.
|Australia||Kensington Pride, Banana, Earlygold, Glenn, Haden, Irwin, Keitt, Kent, Zill|
|Bangladesh||Aswina, Fazli, Gopal Bhog, Himsagar,Khirsapati, Langra, Kishan Bhog, Kohinoor, Kua Pahari, Mohan Bhog|
|Brazil||Bourbon, Carlota, Coracao, Espada, Itamaraca, Maco, Magoada, Rosa, Tommy Atkins|
|China||Baiyu, Guixiang, Huangpi, Huangyu, Macheco, Sannian, Yuexi No. 1|
|Costa Rica||Haden, Irwin, Keitt, Mora, Tommy Atkins|
|Ecuador||Haden, Keitt, Kent, Tommy Atkins|
|Egypt||Alphonso, Bullocks Heart, Hindi Be Sennara, Langra, Mabrouka, Pairie, Taimour, Zebda|
|Guatemala||Haden, Kent, Tommy Atkins|
|Haiti||Francine, Madame Francis|
|India||Alphonso, Banganapalli, Bombay, Bombay Green, Chausa, Dashehari, Fazli, Fernandian, Himsagar, Kesar, Kishen Bhog, Langra, Mallika, Mankurad, Mulgoa, Neelum, Pairi, Samar Behisht Chausa, Suvarnarekha, Totapuri, Vanraj, Zardalu, Amrapali, Bangalora, Gulabkhas|
|Indonesia||Arumanis, Dodol, Gedong, Golek, Madu, Manalagi, Cengkir, Wangi|
|Israel||Haden,Tommy Atkins,Keitt, Maya, Nimrod, Kent, Palmer|
|Malaysia||Arumanis, Kuala Selangor 2, Golek, Apple Rumani, Malgoa, Apple Mango, Maha-65, Tok Boon|
|Mexico||Haden, Irwin, Kent, Manila, Palmer, Sensation, Tommy Atkins, Van Dyke|
|Myanmar||Aug Din, Ma Chit Su, Sein Ta Lone, Shwe Hin Tha|
|Pakistan||Anwar Ratol, Baganapalli, Chausa, Dashehari, Gulab Khas, Langra, Siroli, Sindhri, Suvarnarekha, Zafran|
|Peru||Haden, Keitt, Kent, Tommy Atkins|
|Philippines||Carabao, Manila Super, Pico, Binoboy, Carabao, Dudul, Pahutan, Senorita|
|Singapore||Apple Mango, Arumanis, Golek, Kaem Yao, Mangga Dadol|
|South Africa||Fascell, Haden, Keitt, Kent, Sensation, Tommy Atkins, Zill|
|Sri Lanka||Karutha Colomban, Willard, Vellai Colomban, Petti amba, Malwana amba, Parrot Mango and Peterpasand, Dapara, Hingurakgoda|
|Thailand||Nam Doc Mai, Ngar Charn, Okrong, Rad, Choke Anand, Kao Keaw, Keow Savoey, Pimsenmum|
|USA||Keitt, Kent, Tommy Atkins|
|Venezuela||Haden Keitt Kent Tommy Atkins|